author	 = {Frank Gadban and Julian Kunkel and Thomas Ludwig},
	title	 = {{Investigating the Overhead of the REST Protocol to Reveal the Potential for Using Cloud Services for HPC Storage}},
	year	 = {2020},
	month	 = {10},
	booktitle	 = {{High Performance Computing: ISC High Performance 2020 International Workshops, Revised Selected Papers}},
	editor	 = {Heike Jagode and Hartwig Anzt and Dr. Guido Juckeland and Hatem Ltaief},
	publisher	 = {Springer},
	series	 = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
	number	 = {12321},
	pages	 = {161-176},
	conference	 = {ISC HPC},
	location	 = {Frankfurt, Germany},
	isbn	 = {978-3-030-59851-8},
	issn	 = {1611-3349},
	doi	 = {},
	abstract	 = {With the significant advances in Cloud Computing, it is inevitable to explore the usage of Cloud technology in HPC workflows. While many Cloud vendors offer to move complete HPC workloads into the Cloud, this is limited by the massive demand of computing power alongside storage resources typically required by I/O intensive HPC applications. It is widely believed that HPC hardware and software protocols like MPI yield superior performance and lower resource consumption compared to the HTTP transfer protocol used by RESTful Web Services that are prominent in Cloud execution and Cloud storage. With the advent of enhanced versions of HTTP, it is time to reevaluate the effective usage of cloud-based storage in HPC and their ability to cope with various types of data-intensive workloads. In this paper, we investigate the overhead of the REST protocol via HTTP compared to the HPC-native communication protocol MPI when storing and retrieving objects. Albeit we compare the MPI for a communication use case, we can still evaluate the impact of data communication and, therewith, the efficiency of data transfer for data access patterns. We accomplish this by modeling the impact of data transfer using measurable performance metrics. Hence, our contribution is the creation of a performance model based on hardware counters that provide an analytical representation of data transfer over current and future protocols. We validate this model by comparing the results obtained for REST and MPI on two different cluster systems, one equipped with Infiniband and one with Gigabit Ethernet. The evaluation shows that REST can be a viable, performant, and resource-efficient solution, in particular for accessing large files.},

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