author	 = {Michael Kuhn and Julian Kunkel and Thomas Ludwig},
	title	 = {{Directory-Based Metadata Optimizations for Small Files in PVFS}},
	year	 = {2008},
	booktitle	 = {{Euro-Par '08: Proceedings of the 14th international Euro-Par conference on Parallel Processing}},
	publisher	 = {Springer-Verlag},
	address	 = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
	pages	 = {90--99},
	conference	 = {Euro-Par-08},
	organization	 = {University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria},
	location	 = {Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain},
	isbn	 = {978-3-540-85450-0},
	doi	 = {},
	abstract	 = {Modern file systems maintain extensive metadata about stored files. While this usually is useful, there are situations when the additional overhead of such a design becomes a problem in terms of performance. This is especially true for parallel and cluster file systems, because due to their design every metadata operation is even more expensive. In this paper several changes made to the parallel cluster file system PVFS are presented. The changes are targeted at the optimization of workloads with large numbers of small files. To improve metadata performance, PVFS was modified such that unnecessary metadata is not managed anymore. Several tests with a large quantity of files were done to measure the benefits of these changes. The tests have shown that common file system operations can be sped up by a factor of two even with relatively few changes.},

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